Article Index

Prominent pedagogical streams

There are numerous pedagogical streams and means of their classification. Comparing the different pedagogical streams is the same as trying to solve a challenging brain-teaser! Yet, it’s still possible to conduct a classification by comparing the ultimate objectives set by the respective educators, or by contrasting the various educational concepts against the practical teaching methods involved.

Selected examples (in French):

Qu’est-ce qu’un courant pédagogique ? What is an educational stream? Author – Laurent Sampson, St. Paul College; as supervised by Suzanne Guillemette. Université de Sherbrooke.

Provided below is an overview of the four main streams of education (humanistic, cognitive, constructive (socio-constructive) and behavioral).

1. Streams classified according to theoretical teaching model

- First stream: Empirical concept of teaching > Instructional methods that presuppose the gradual mastery and memorization of material.

- Second stream: Behavioral concept of teaching > Instructional methods that entail training through psychological influence and the subsequent reinforcement of newly-acquired skills.

- Third stream: Constructive and socio-constructive theory of teaching >
Instructional methods presupposing an active process whereby the student constructs new ideas and concepts based on previously-acquired knowledge through interaction with the surrounding world.

- Fourth stream: Cognitive and socio-cognitive theory of teaching. Instructional methods entailing the processing of information, drawing on the unseen part of learning in the educational process.Such teaching methods constantly employ the data found in cognitive and affective neuroscience.

- Fifth stream: Holistic theory of teaching > Holistic methods of instruction that presuppose a creative approach to learning.


References:

Avanzini, G. (1985). Esquisse d’une comparaison entre les pensées pédagogiques du XVIIIe et du XXe siècles. Éducation et pédagogies au siècle des Lumières. Angers : Presse de l’Université Catholique de l’Ouest.

Avanzini, G. (1996). La pédagogie aujourd'hui. Dunod.

Prigogine Ilya (1996). La fin des certitudes. Temps, chaos et les lois de la nature. Éd. Odile Jacob.

Hameline, D. (1986/2000). Courants et contre-courants dans la pédagogie contemporaine. Sion : ODIS.

Hameline, D. (1992). L’éducation dans le miroir du temps. Paris : Lep. Loisirs et pédagogie.

Giordan André. Des modèles pour comprendre l’apprendre : de l’empirisme au modèle allostériquehttp://www.andregiordan.com/articles/apprendre/modalost.html

Giordan André. Le modèle allostérique et les théories contemporaines sur l’apprentissagehttp://www.ldes.unige.ch/publi/rech/th_app.htm

Giordan, André. Les nouveaux modèles pour apprendre : dépasser le constructivisme ? / André Giordan. In: Perspectives. - Paris. - Vol. 25(1995), no 1, p. 109-127.

Meirieu, Ph. (1994). Histoire et actualité de la pédagogie, repères théoriques et bibliographiques. Outils de base pour la recherche en éducation. 1. Université Lumière-Lyon 2.

Morin, E. (1999). La tête bien faite. Paris : Seuil.

Morin, E. (1999). Relier les connaissances. Le défi du XXIe siècle. Paris : Le Seuil.

Morin, E. (1999 b). Les sept savoirs nécessaires à l'éducation du futur. Éd. Seuil. Disponible sur le Site de l’Unesco : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001177/117740fo.pdf

Not, L. (1979). Les pédagogies de la connaissance. Toulouse : Éd. Privat.

Puozzo, I. (2013). Pédagogie de la créativité : de l’émotion à l’apprentissage. In Les cahiers du CERFEE. N˚33.
http://edso.revues.org/174

Gauthier Clermont et Tardif Maurice (1996). La pédagogie. Théorie et pratiques de l’Antiquité à nos jours. Éd. Gaëtan Morin.

Vellas, Etiennette (2007). Comparer les pédagogies : un casse-tête un défi. Éducateur. Numéro Spécial 2007. En ligne : http://www.meirieu.com/OUTILSDEFORMATION/vellas_comparerlespedagogies.pdf

Modern scientific theories of education capable of influencing existing teaching methods

The analytical grid, proposed in part by André Giordan, is built on the basis of three main discriminants, used most frequently in literature: knowledge, student, society, teaching methodology, creativity. This method makes it possible to divide today’s numerous teaching methods into fifteen groups, sorting them by six main vectors:

- knowledge: academic theories, technological theories, behavioral theories, epistemological theories;

- society: social theories, socio-cognitive theories, psycho-social theories, multidirectional theories;

- learning: humanistic theories, genetic theories, cognitive theories;

- spirituality: spiritual theories;

- teaching methodologies: teaching theories, allosteric model;

- holism: theories of creativity, theories of complexity.

Giordan André. Le modèle allostérique et les théories contemporaines sur l’apprentissagehttp://www.ldes.unige.ch/publi/rech/th_app.htm

Fert Jean-Marc (2011). Éduquer à la complexité. (Teaching complex thinking). Communication au 8ème Congrès de l’Union européenne de Systémique. Bruxelles. En ligne : http://www.meirieu.com/ECHANGES/eduquer_complexite_fert.pdf

Fert Jean-Marc (2008). Eduquer pour une société durable. Dieux et autorités en crise.

Fert Jean-Marc (2012). Apprendre à penser complexe (tome I). Se relier au monde. Éd. Odin.

Fert Jean-Marc (2012). Apprendre à penser complexe (tome 2). Reliances humaines et personnelles. Éd. Odin.

2. Classification of streams by ultimate objective (models of man and society

Any form of education necessarily entails navigation in a system of values, and consequently touches on the fundamental problems that constitute the objective of the educational process itself. It is these values that determine the direction of instruction.

Methods of instruction can be divided into three expansive groups:

- individual approach: assumes an individual impact on the subject (student);
- communal (collective) approach: primarily focused on the education of the person as a member of society at large;
- approach that combines the two foregoing methods: education of the person as both individual and citizen.

3. Classification of streams depending on pedagogical circumstances

Jean Houssaye (1988), an pedagogue, proposed the concept of “pedagogical triangle” as a model for understanding the educational process. The triangle makes it possible to conduct an analysis by comparing various pedagogical situations. Each situation assumes the existence of three separate elements – student, knowledge and teacher, two of which always prevail over the third.

The triangle makes it possible to model three processes, each of which develops in its own direction. If the Knowledge/Teacher direction dominates the pedagogical situation, it means that the teaching process is developing as the teacher conducts a dialogue with Knowledge while the Learning/Student direction is in a state Jean Houssaye refers to as the “inaction position.” If the Teacher/Student direction prevails, it means that the process of knowledge acquisition is underway and it would be difficult to say who’s “inactive.” If the Student/Knowledge direction prevails, it signals the memorization process, while either the teacher or the student is left “inactive.”

Here, Houssaye explains that the term “inactivity” is being used in the sense of game theory (as in cards). “In other words, the cards have been dealt and the player must play, although he cannot. Yet, his presence is essential for without him, the game cannot continue. He is vital but his role is secondary, determined by the other players who are controlling the situation.” The intensification of any of the directions carries the risk of turning the “inactive” participant into an “insane” one: noise or other forms of protest on the part of the students engaged in the learning process; errors and misunderstandings in the process of knowledge acquisition; disengagement and detachment from the educational process as a whole.


References:

Educnet : http://eduscol.education.fr/bd/competice/superieur/competice/libre/qualification/q3a.php

Houssaye, J. (1988). Le triangle pédagogique. Théorie et pratiques de l'éducation scolaire. Peter Lang.

Houssaye, J. (2014). Le triangle pédagogique. Les différentes facettes de la pédagogie. ESF.

4. Classification of educational streams by type of teaching situation

Any educational activity forces the instructor to choose the appropriate teaching situation. This may involve consideration of the circumstances in which the student finds himself and which allow for a blossoming of his individuality.

It is important to ensure maximum alignment between these proposed circumstances and the classroom instruction process. That is, all discoveries, inventions, creative processes and tests are conducted not in a research laboratory but in the “living laboratory” that is the school.

Types of proposed situations:

- Frontal lessons: classes and lectures;

- Performance of various assignments: individual projects, collective projects, joint projects;

- Solution of planned tasks: problem situations, handling of problems and tasks without prompting, auto-social-constructive lessons, research;

- Game situations: free games, symbolic games, role-playing games, modelling and social games;

- Management of life and school work: What’s new, student council, school board, methodological council; Or situations prompted by the hint “What if – what if not;”

- Evaluative situations: evaluation sessions that take into consideration personal qualities (various kinds of tests, explanatory discussions, creation of a portfolio, collective assessment of a given situation, and evaluation of systems, tasks and situations themselves;

- "Contract work": weekly plan, work plan, employment contract (individual or collective);

- Analysis of completed work: methodological council, convened for the purposes of analyzing the educational process, etc..;

- Making discoveries: special-interest clubs, visits to museums and exhibitions, meetings with crafts people and artists, social work;

- Scientific research: collection of information, review of different sources;

- Work at specialized studios: literary circles, art studios, music groups or pottery clubs.

- Work with the mass media, information technologies and computer graphics.