Selected, time-sensitive goals and tasks
The evaluation of student knowledge has been the primary concern of teachers since the beginning of the 20th century. The first studies of this issue were conducted within the scope of the scientific field of docimology. Area research resulted in the identification of systematic deviations from the set goal that hindered evaluating teachers from reaching the right conclusions on exams. In the modern world, despite newly-adopted teaching strategies (grading of anonymous tests (where possible), correction of mistakes immediately after the completion of exercises as opposed to completion of the entire assignment, double checking, etc.), the same factors continue to have an impact on knowledge evaluation (for instance, the influence of stereotypes on exam results).
To better understand the factors that impact the quality of the evaluations performed by teachers, the objectives of the studies were modified. Evaluations are no longer analyzed on the basis of measurement models as was the case in docimological studies. “Evaluating isn’t measuring.” Qualitative pedagogical evaluation relies on the expert judgement of the teacher – and on his professional surroundings. Evaluations must comport with the criteria of underlying professional norms and ethics – even when the teacher makes correction decisions to the advantage/disadvantage of the concerned students.
The vectors of development underpinning the dissemination of innovative practical-evaluation methods are highly varied:
- interaction between teacher and students in the evaluation of classroom learning, as well as interaction among teaching professionals in the interests of creating a shared culture of knowledge evaluation at specialized institutions/among institutions;
- informal classroom evaluation and quality of feedback in order to ensure support for students over the course of the study process;
- arrangement of connectivity between the entire material slated for study and individually-mastered parts, various evaluation methods;
- instruments of evaluation formation – evaluations aimed at further study integrated into the instructional process for the purposes of its regulation;
- engaging students in the self-evaluation process and assessment of one another (in pairs) for the purposes of encouraging self-regulation and autonomy in the study process;
- interaction among, and use of, evaluation methods proposed by different groups of teachers, and testing of developed methods;
Allal, L. (2008). Evaluation des apprentissages. In A. van Zanten (Ed.), Dictionnaire de l'éducation (pp. 311-‐314). Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Allal, L. & Mottier Lopez, L. (2014). Teachers’ professional judgment in the context of collaborative assessment practice. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski & P. Colbert (Ed.), Designing Assessment for Quality Learning (pp. 151-165). London : Springer (The Enabling Power of Assessment).
Allal & L. Mottier Lopez (Ed.) (2007). Régulation des apprentissages en situation scolaire et en formation. Bruxelles : De Boeck.
Amigues, R. & Zerbato-Poudou, M.-T. (1996). Les pratiques scolaires d’apprentissage et d’évaluation. Paris : Dunod.
Antibi, A. (2003). La constante macabre ou comment a-t-on découragé des générations d'élèves. Toulouse : Math'Adore.
Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for Learning : Putting it into practice. Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press.
Bressoux, P. & Pansu, P. (2003). Quand les enseignants jugent leurs élèves. Paris : PUF.
Butera, F., C Buchs, C. & Darnon, C. (Ed.). (2011). L'évaluation une menace ? Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Hadji, C. (2015). L’évaluation à l’école : pour la réussite de tous les élèves. Paris : Nathan.
Hadji, C. (2012). Faut-il avoir peur de l’évaluation ? Bruxelles : De Boeck.
Klenowski, V. & Wyatt-Smith, C. (2014). Assessment for education : standards, judgement and moderation. London : SAGE publications ltd.
Lafortune, L. & Allal, L. (Ed.). (2008). Jugement professionnel en évaluation : pratiques enseignantes au Québec et à Genève. Québec : Presses de l’Université de Québec.
Merle, P. (2012). L'évaluation des élèves : une modélisation interactionniste des pratiques professorales. In L. Mottier Lopez & G. Figari (Ed.), Modélisations de l'évaluation en éducation (pp. 27-43). Bruxelles : De Boeck.
Mottier Lopez, L. (2015). Evaluations formative et certificative des apprentissages. Enjeux pour l'enseignement. Bruxelles : De Boeck.
Mottier Lopez, L. (2012). La régulation des apprentissages en classe. Bruxelles : De Boeck.
Mottier Lopez & M. Crahay (Ed.) (2009). Evaluation en tension. Entre la régulation des apprentissages et le pilotage des systèmes. Bruxelles : De Boeck.
Mottier Lopez & W. Tessaro (Ed.) (2016). Le jugement professionnel au cœur de l’évaluation et de la régulation des apprentissages. Berne : Peter Lang.
Noizet, G. & Caverni, J.-P. (1978). Psychologie de l’évaluation scolaire. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Piéron, H. (1963). Examens et docimologie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Stiggins, R. J. (2005). From formative assessment to assessment FOR learning : A path to success in standards-based schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 87 (4), 324-328.
Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment. Bloomington, IN : Solution Tree Press.
Video resources (in French):
“The evaluation of knowledge is, unfortunately, a daily process too seldom discussed in which practical understanding is insufficient. Teachers don’t discuss the topic amongst themselves, with each teacher guided by their own personal experience in the evaluation process. This is a misguided approach, since most classroom time winds up devoted not to teaching but to grading.”
“Evaluating to teach further works,” abbreviated course on self-instruction by François Muller.
“Evaluation is a delicate process – a subject that touches on the realm of emotions, a process that can be injurious, a contentious concept and a challenging task, a Pandora’s box, a hot potato ... So what does evaluation actually mean? It sometimes seems as though at issue is a frightening thing – I would even go so far as to say a kind of taboo that must go unmentioned, while in point of fact – it’s an instrument and not a thing in and of itself. A hammer can be used to create – and to destroy. The same can be said of evaluation.”
According to Marc-André Lalande, “Evaluation” is an advisor in the teaching of online courses at the Montreal School of Higher Commercial Studies.
“We all know that evaluation is an important task undertaken by all of the educational institutions in the world. That’s why it’s so important to synthesize our understanding of evaluation methods. Clearly, expanding practice in the area of formative evaluation encourages the advancement of the learning process itself.”
“Importance of Regulating the Evaluation Process;” a study program investigating the process of classroom learning and keys to success – Quebec Provincial Education.
“ ... certain aspects seem critical and must be taken into consideration if we want to understand how best to achieve success instead of viewing our accomplishments as the result of the unique attributes of individual personalities.”
“Why Must Evaluations Be Positive?” – Conference of Jean-Marc Monteil, Instructor and Former Rector of the Paris Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
• Conference of Claire Bourguignon, Associate Professor at the University of Rouen: “Evaluating Student Knowledge: A Changing Paradigm?”
• Conference of Dominique Raulin, Director of the Regional Center for Pedagogical Documentation, Former Secretary General of the Federal Council on National Education Programs, 23 March 2012: “Evaluating Student Knowledge”
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